An urnfield is a cemetery containing cremations placed in urns. The term Urnfield culture or cultures is used to describe the Late Bronze Age groups found over much of temperate Europe, who disposed of their dead in umfields. The Urnfield cultures are dated to C1300-800/700 bc, lasting even later in peripheral areas, and are characterized by a well-developed bronze industry. Many copper mines of this period are known and studies of those in the Miihlbach-Bischofshofen area of Austria indicate that mining was on a considerable scale one calculation suggests that 20,000 tonnes of crude copper were extracted from the mines of this area over a period of several centuries. The techniques of bronze production also developed in this period: beaten bronze was now produced and used both for vessels and for sheet metal armour, such as helmets, shields and body armour. Mastery of the cire perdue casting method also characterizes the Umfield bronze industry. Settlement was often in small hillforts or other small defended settlements. The Urnfield cultures succeeded the Tumulus culture in central Europe and developed into the Hallstatt Iron Age culture. See also Lausitz.